terms of the age were: "Nakis-miniature; nakkaspainter,
miniaturist; tasvir-depiction; m´savvir-depicter; nakkashane/nigarhane-workshop;
kalemi siyah-pencil; sebil yazmak-to portray; tahr-composition;
tarrah-designer of the composition; endam-symmetry, balance; nakkasan
group of miniaturists. The beauty of the Turkish miniatures spring
from the contours and the sense of colour. The paper straightened
by a heavy press was covered by red lead. The finish consisted of
egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia.
The finished paper had a luminous appearance and it was creamy in
colour. After the text and tables were completed, the paper was
handed to the miniaturists to be painted. The miniatures were divided
as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects
and events) and 2)portraits. The subjects of the miniatures were
as follows: Shahname and Shehinshahname-The public and private lives
of rulers, their portraits and historical events; Shemaili Ali Osman-portraits
of rulers; Surname-pictures depicting weddings and especially circumcision
festivities; religious subjects (Siyer-i Nebi); Shecaatname-wars
commanded by pashas; Iskendername-in ancient Moslem belief Alexander
the Great is considered a prophet; Humayunname-epics, heroic deeds
and animal fables; literary works and folk stories such as Leyla
and Mecnun; anthologies; the world of botanies and animals, scientific
books on alchemy, cosmography and medicine; technical books; love
letters; horoscopes translations.The miniatures in the translations
were sometimes directly copied from the original and sometimes they
were authentically made. In such cases, ones should know the different
styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India. Kaaba
depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place
in the Turkish miniatures.
of Murat III. "Important Characters in History, 1583"
The clear and simple expression attained a magnificent style by
plain drawing and colours. There was neither lyricism nor idealism,
but only realism based on close observation. There were humorous
expressions of daily life. This expressionist style revealed itself
in a very few lines in the moving bodies. Refined details were rare.
The purpose was to reflect and attain the best within simplicity.
The combat order were shown on war miniatures. It is understood
that the miniaturists joined those campaigns. The artists did not
consider perspective and the third dimension. They portrayed people
in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth
profile seen in Persian miniatures. The relation between nature,
objects and figures was not taken into consideration. The relation
between nature, objects and figures was not taken into consideration.
The important point was the main theme. The secondary themes and
scenes were complementary to the composition. The borrowed look
of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals
of protocol in every period.
Pride, faithfulness and anxiety signified the
order of the state with a humorous approach. The composition and
the contours were worked attentively. The order of places was very
important. Realistic scenery and topographic views were rare. Artists
like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of S´leyman
the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean
ports, were very few.
colours were obtained by powdered dyes mixed with egg-white. The
colours were strikingly brilliant. Contrasting colours were used
side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour
selection. In nature depictions spots of colour were used. The colour
nuances of the same shade were masterly applied. The most used colours
were bright red, scarlet, green and different shades of blue. The
domes were painted pale blue. The way black, white, yellow and gild
were used liberally had a special quality. Gild was used in architectural
details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works.
The sky and clouds were never depicted in their natural colours.
Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed
the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the
16th century. Turkish-Islamic Art; The Miniatures of the Zubdat-al-Tawarikh.