After Kanuni Death, His Ceremony

 

 

 

 
Barbaros and Kanuni from Suleymanname
 

 



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Ottoman Miniatures

The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life. The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display. While the H´srev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions. We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of H´samzade Sunullah and Master Paoli. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. His pupils began to produce works in his style. Their works reached the gates of Istanbul. Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work. Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting). "Nakkashane-i Rum" (The Ottoman Academy of Painting) was established upon the reaction of the Ottoman painters. It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures. Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained. Now we shall take a look at the Turkish Academy during S´leyman the Magnificent reign. Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities. The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar. He was a sailor).Miniature was again on full force during Murat III's reign. The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and L´tf´ Abdullah. We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society. According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in S´leyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils. These numbers increased highly towards the end of the century. Few of the miniatures are dated. The miniaturist signed his work only if he alone has painted the portrait or the scene. The works were usually anonymous. The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part. It is difficult to distinguish individual styles. The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures. The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. The design approach was usually symmetrical.

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