The Mamelukes (1254 - 1332)

The death of Genghis Khan, like that of Attila, led to the disintegration of the empire. The Hordes were partitioned under various local rulers and numerous unemployed white mercenaries, who had been taken captive in the Caucasus, found themselves "redundant". The Ayyubid Sultans of Egypt, the successors of Saladin, were happy to secure their services and brought them to Cairo. In 1230 Sultan al-Kamil bought over 12,000 of them from the Mongols. Their martial prowess soon made them the real rulers of the country. They took advantage of the situation to assassinate the last Ayyubid ruler and seize power in 1250.

Then they founded, as "Turkish Mamelukes", the Kalaunid Dynasty, which ruled from 1257 to 1382.