Ottoman resistance was exhausted. Early in October, the war government
resigned, and the Young Turk triumvirate--Enver, Talat, and Cemal--fled
to exile in Germany. Mehmet VI (r. 1918-22), who had succeeded to
the rule upon his brother's death in July, sued for peace through
a government headed by liberal ministers that signed an armistice
at Mudros on October 30, 1918, that had been dictated by the Allies.
Allied warships steamed through the Dardanelles and anchored off
Istanbul on November 12, the day after the end of the war in Europe.
In four years of war, the Ottoman Empire had mobilized about 2.8
million men, of whom about 325,000 were killed in battle. In addition,
more than 2 million civilians, including both Turks and Armenians,
are believed to have died of war-related causes. Talat and Cemal,
who were held responsible for the deportation of Armenians and the
mistreatment of refugees, were assassinated by Armenian nationalists
in 1921. The following year, Enver was killed while fighting the
Bolsheviks in Central Asia.