Osman declares the independence of his small principality
from the Selcuk sultanate of Konya
Orhan Gazi captures Bursa, which
becomes the second Ottoman capital (the small town
of Sogut was the first capital).
Murad I captures Edirne (Adrianople).
As the third Ottoman capital, Edirne now becomes the
head-guarters for the further expansion.
The conquest of Sofia (capital
of present-day Bulgaria).
The final conquest and annexation,
under Bayazid I the Thunderbolt, of the territories
of the medieval kingdoms of Bulgaria and Serbia.
A new force out of the plains begins
to make its presence felt in West Asia, forcing the
Ottomans to over-extend themselves two distant fronts.
The Battle of Ankara between Timur
(Tamerlane) and Bayazid I. Alienated by Bayazid's hasty
push of rapid centralization, the forces of the recently
annexed Turcoman principalities of Anatolia cross over
to the side of the relatively semi-tribal Timur in the
heat of battle. deserted by all expect his Serbian allies,
Bayazid is captured and eventually commits suicide.
The Interregnum : Bayazid's four
sons fight each other for the throne, which is eventually
won by Çelebi Mehmed I (1412-1420).
War between Venice and the reconsolidating
Ottoman state-the first of many for supremacy in the
Aegean and the Mediterranean, and ultimately for control
over the traditional trade routes of the Old World.
Second battle of Kossova consolidates
the Ottoman rule in Balkans.
With the death of Murad II, his
son Mehmed II ascends the throne for the second and
final time, and immediately launches preparations for...
The conquest of Constaninople (Istanbul),
which becomes the fourth and last Ottoman capital. The
remaining 29 years of Mehmed II's reign witness the
decisive conquest or reconquest of Serbia, Albania and
Greece in the West as well as most of Anatolia. The
whole course of this second great Ottoman advance into
the Balkans is marked by wars with Venice for control
of the Adriatic shoreline.
Construction work begins on the
Greece, Trebizond and Crimea conquered.
The peaceful reign of Bayazid II
is marred by a conservative religious reaction against
the Conqueror's cosmopolitan cultural outlook and strong
centralization drive. From 1500 onwards, the Safavids
of Iran begin to take advantage of Ottoman passivity
in pushing their Shiite proselytizing efforts into Eastern
and Southeastern Anatolia.
Selim I the Grim, who with janissary
support, dethroned his father in 1512, relies on his
cannon to defeat Sah Ismail at the battle of Caldiran,
conquers Tabriz, secures his left flank for the subsequent
advance into Egypt, and returns to Istanbul with enormous
war booty as well as large numbers of Persian artists
In lightning campaigns marked
by the continued superiority of Ottoman field artillery,
Selim I completes the conquest of Eastern Anatolia,
Northern Iraq, Syria,Palestine, Egypt, and the Hicaz.
Portuguese Magellan circumnavigates
Luther launches attack on Roman
The capture of Belgrade marks
the second year of the long reign of Suleyman I the
Magnificent (1520-1566). He resumes the westward drive
towards the rich markets and trade crossroads of Central
The capture of Rhodes, a manifestation
of rising Ottoman naval power.
Ottoman firepower destroys
the flower of the Hungarian nobility at the battle of
Mohacs; the conquest of Buda and Peşte follows. That
same year, François I appeals to Suleyman, who agrees
to provide military and economic assistance to France
against the Hapsburgs in order to help restore the balance
of power in Europe
Szapolyai, king of Hungary,
accepts Ottoman overlordship
The first siege of Vienna by the
Ottomans, who are, however, unprepared for a long and
at Belgrad Campaign
Treaty with Austria gives Hapsburg
Emperor titular equality.
The high tide of the Celali
uprisings, rebellions against the land tenure system
of the provincial fief-holding cavalry. This turn-of-the-century
upheaval marks the end of the Classical Age and the
opening pf a new chapter in Ottoman history characterized
by the waning of the state's political and military
Work begins on the Blue Mosque.
Thirty Years' War' in central Europe.
Osman II the Young, the first
Ottoman sultan to formulate a reform program (and to
lose his head for it), sets out on his Hotin expedition
- essentially to overcome the developing crisis of confidence
and to re-establish charismatic leadership over the
Murad IV restores order.
Murad IV, who succeeded by imposing
his unusually harsh will to halt progressive anarchy
and destabilization, sets out on his great expedition
to the East. His journey culminates in the capture of
Baghdad. He is the last great centralizing sultan.
China's decaying Ming dynasty
swept away by Manchurian Qing dynasty.
Peter the Great founds St
The battle of Pruth against
the Russians under the command of the Grand Vezir Baltaci
Mehmed Pasha. According to a spicy tradition, Pasha
surrounded Peter the Great's army but then let them
avoid humiliation because he was "persuaded"
by a secret nocturnal visit to his tent by the tsar's
mistress (later empress) Catherine.
Peace treaty with Russia.
Death of Aurangzeb presages
decline of Moghul power in India.
The Treaty of Passarowitz
with Austria following yet another lost war.
First Ottoman ambassadors
sent to western capitals.
Patrona Halil rebellion against
taxation and western influences; Ahmet III deposed,
Tulip Period ends.
Peace of Belgrade returns
Belgrade to the Ottomans; Russians forced to sign separate
Another great Istanbul fire
burns covered markets to the ground.
A major earthquake in Istanbul.
Clive's victory at Plassey
establishes British in India.
War with Russia renewed.
The Crimean Tartars switch
sides to conclude an anti-Ottoman alliance with Russia.
Cin-Ali Bey, who had proclaimed
himself sultan of Egypt, is defeated in battle, and
his rebellion crushed. Nevertheless, esraf and ayan
(newly crystallizing dynasties of provincial notables)
are on the move throughout the empire.
Disastrous Treaty of Kucuk
Kainardji with Russia.
American Declaration of Independence.
Russia annexes Crimea.
A fire in Istanbul lasts 50
Selim III, a dedicated reformer,
ascends the throne in the same year as the French Revolution.
Some of his social experiments are inpired by the same
democratic ideologies which motivated the French.
against Austria and Russia.
Napoleon's Egyptian expedition
becomes stranded after Nelson destroys the French fleet
at the battle of the Nile. Napoleon advances into Syria,
but is forced to retreat the next year in the face of
determined Ottoman resistance.
Napoleon Bonaparte reshapes map
of continental Europe.
The British navy attempts
to force the Straits; the Ottoman government declares
war on both Britain and Russia.
An Istanbul revolt instigated
by conservative elements within the ruling elite and
led by Kabakci Mustafa, a man of the urban underclass,
dethrones Selim III. The sultan first is imprisoned
and later killed when an army of provincial reformers
led by Alemdar Mustafa Pasa advences on the capital
to rescue the Sultan. Alemdar, nevertheless, succeds
in overthrowing Mustafa IV and putting Mahmud II on
Congress of Vienna
The Greek revolt and war of
independence: the first step in the formation of new
nation-states by the former Christian subjects of the
Massacre of the Janissaries
by Mahmud II.
Greece's European allies help
defeat and destory the combined Ottoman-Egyptian fleet.
Fez introduced, along with
judicial, military and administrative reforms on more
Anglo-Turkish Trade Treaty
marks the incorporation of the Ottoman internal market
into world economy.
Noble Rescript' promulgated,
a liberal charter of reform. All creeds and declared
Crimean war pits Turkish,
English and French troops against Russia.
American Civil War.
The signing of the Protocol
of Istanbul. It marks the birth of Romania with the
unification of Wallachia and Moldavia.
Abdulaziz visits Europe on
the invitation of Napoleon III.
Meiji Restoration in Japan.
Empire declares bankruptcy.
The Empire continues to crumble,
revolt in Bosnia and Herzegovina, war against Serbia
1876-1877 The short-lived First Constitutional Period.
War against Russia, known
in Turkey as "the campaign of 93", after which
the Russian army dictates the Treaty of Ayastefanos.
Sultan Aldulhamid II uses the crisis to dissolve parliament
and suspend the constitution.
Treaty of Berlin - to which
Ottomans are not invited - establishes partial Bulgarian
The French invade Tunisia.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is born
The British invade and take
Last Ottoman province in the Balkans,
Macedonia, succumbs to civil war.
Mutiny in Monastir, calling
for restoration of the constitution. Committee of Union
and Progress triumphs. Bulgaria declares independence.
Crete unites with Greece.
The Young Turks Revolution overthrows
Sultan Abdulhamid II. The Second Constitutional Period
thwarted. Sultan deposed. Constitutional monarchy declared.
Republic in China.
Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria
launch joint assault on European Turkey.
The victors turn upon each
other; Turkey recaptures Edirne.
Turkey enters World War I
on German side.
Armistice. CUP leadership
flees. Civil War erupts, followed by war with Greece
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk secures
boundaries of a new Turkish state.
The War of Independence culminates
in the creation of the modern Rupublic of Turkey in
Deposition and exile of last
sultan, Mehmed Vahiduddin